Google working on new way to run Android apps in Chrome OS called ‘ARCVM’


For the previous few years, it’s been doable on many Chromebooks to put in the Play Retailer and run Android apps. This opened the door for Chromebooks to turn out to be extra than simply glorified internet browsers. Now, Google is trying to make some main under-the-hood adjustments to Chrome OS’s Android apps help, which can enable for a long-requested function.

Historical past of Android on Chrome OS

About 4 years in the past, Google created a manner for the Chrome browser to run Android apps, referred to as Android Runtime for Chrome (ARC). This was designed with Chrome OS in thoughts, however builders rapidly discovered that it could possibly be used to run Android apps in Chrome on any desktop platform.

Whereas this labored effectively sufficient, Google wished one thing extra helpful and Chrome OS particular. Thus, they started growing the following era of ARC, “ARC++” to suit with basic developer naming scheme. ARC++ built-in the Android Runtime deeply with Chrome OS, permitting for issues just like the Play Retailer. That is how Android apps run on Chromebooks right this moment.

ARC++ was doable partly as a result of Chrome OS, like Android, relies on the Linux kernel. To extend safety, ARC++ really runs in a “container,” which is a manner of isolating the Android components from the remainder of Chrome OS. Whereas these efforts positively assist, the Chrome staff has admitted that there’s room for enchancment and potential for exploits.

We attempt to isolate them fairly a bit (utilizing namespaces, seccomp, alt syscall, SELinux, and so on…), however on the finish of the day, they’ve direct entry to many syscalls and kernel interfaces, so a bug in there may be reachable through code compiled with Android’s NDK.

To be taught a bit extra about ARC++, there’s a terrific explainer of the way it connects graphically to Chrome OS, on LWN, from David Reveman who was as soon as a member of the Chrome staff and has since moved on to Fuchsia.

Linux on Chrome OS is completely different

Final yr, Google launched an unbelievable effort on Chrome OS to make Linux apps out there to put in and use (usually referred to as Crostini). This was a lot simpler mentioned than accomplished although. Certain, if you concentrate on it, Chrome OS is Linux-based, which implies it must be comparatively straightforward to simply run Linux apps on it.

As a substitute although, the Chrome staff determined to create a digital machine (or VM) to run Debian (a Linux distribution) and combine that VM with the Chrome OS “host.” Whereas they could have used current digital machine tech from the likes of QEMU or VirtualBox, they thought it higher to create specialised instruments from scratch, referred to as “crosvm” and “Termina.”

There have been fairly a number of causes for utilizing a digital machine, however the largest one was safety. Having direct entry to Chrome OS’s Linux kernel would create extra alternatives for malicious code or probably even viruses.

For Android, Google controls the app ecosystem through the Play Retailer, which usually means the apps there might be trusted. And if you wish to sideload Android apps, it is advisable put your system into Developer Mode which lets you do probably unsafe issues like that.

On Linux, the place Google doesn’t have that stage of management, there was no approach to restrict to simply trusted apps. Utilizing a digital machine solves this downside, as in the event you set up a malicious utility, you’ll be able to merely shut down the VM, wipe it, and begin over, with out affecting Chrome OS total.

Getting the digital machine built-in with Chrome OS, such that Linux apps really feel “at home” on Chromebooks, has not been with out its difficulties. For instance, a major quantity of current work has gone into creating GPU help to permit extra graphically intense Linux purposes (and probably video games).


Formally, Google has “no plans” to make any adjustments to the established order of Android apps on Chrome OS. Beneath the floor, nonetheless, the Chromium staff has been making an effort to make Chrome OS’s Android apps help extra like their Linux apps help.

The hassle, aptly named ARCVM (brief for ARC Digital Machine), from the bits of evidence out there, appears poised to make the most of the work accomplished on the Crostini challenge by operating Android via the same Termina VM. By shifting to a digital machine, Chrome OS’s Android help will be capable of make the most of the identical safety features, and the flexibility to simply reset ought to something go fallacious.

Making Android apps correctly remoted from Chrome OS as a complete creates potential for Google to permit sideloading Android apps with out getting into Developer Mode. With the ability to sideload apps has been a long-requested feature by Chrome OS customers as many apps labeled “incompatible” with Chromebooks the truth is really work simply tremendous when sideloaded. It could additionally make third-party app shops like Aptoide accessible on Chrome OS.

Past this, Android app builders would be capable of set up Android Studio on a Chromebook, develop their app, and take a look at it on-device with out being in Developer Mode. Given Google’s current push for “secure development” through Chromebooks, this looks as if the most probably driving power behind the ARCVM effort.

Nevertheless, like different work-in-progress tasks found in Chromium, there’s potential that this ARCVM challenge could possibly be scrapped altogether, similar to the Campfire project. As soon as a working prototype has been made, they’ll have to weigh execs and cons, to see if the elevated safety and potential to sideload apps outweighs the influence it might probably have on efficiency on lower-end Chromebooks.

As improvement of ARCVM continues to be ongoing and it’s not in any manner a confirmed challenge, there’s no telling when, if ever, we’ll see it stay on our gadgets. My private guess can be both late this yr or close to the launch of Android Q on Chrome OS.

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